Theodore (Ted) Heindel


Bergles Professor of Thermal Science and University Professor
Mechanical Engineering
Chemical and Biological Engineering (Courtesy)
Director, Center for Multiphase Flow Research and Education (CoMFRE)


2644 Howe
537 Bissell Rd
Ames, IA 50011-1096


Ted Heindel is an ISU University Professor, the Bergles Professor of Thermal Science in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and the Director of the Center for Multiphase Flow Research and Education (CoMFRE); he also holds a courtesy professor appointment in the Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering. He directs the Experimental Multiphase Flow Laboratory at ISU, which houses a unique instrument for performing X-ray visualization studies of large-scale complex fluid flows. His research currently focuses on multiphase flow hydrodynamics (e.g., mixing in gas-liquid, gas-solid, and gas-liquid-solid flows), multiphase flow visualization and characterization using X-ray imaging technology, and particle-particle mixing. This work has applications in petroleum-based and bio-based chemical and fuel processing, energy generation, food processing, agricultural waste management, pharmaceutical manufacturing, and wastewater treatment. Dr. Heindel’s research program has been funded by over 55 projects supported through the NSF, ONR, USDA, DOE, the State of Iowa, and industrial partners. He has co-authored one book and published over 90 peer-reviewed journal papers and over 270 conference papers, abstracts, and technical reports. Dr. Heindel has been recognized at ISU with a Regents Award for Faculty Excellence in 2018, the Exemplary Faculty Mentor Award in 2014, the College of Engineering’s Superior Engineering Teacher of the Year Award in 2006, and was twice selected by graduating seniors as mechanical engineering’s Professor of the Year. Dr. Heindel is a Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) and active in the ASME Fluids Engineering Division. He was an associate editor of the ASME Journal of Fluids Engineering for two 3-year terms (the maximum allowed by JFE) and Chair of the Fluid Measurement and Instrumentation Technical Committee for two 2-year terms. He completed an 8-year stint on the Fluids Engineering Division (FED) Honors and Awards Committee. He has also chaired or co-chaired several sessions at ASME conferences, and reviews papers and proposals for several journals and organizations. Dr. Heindel is a past holder of the William and Virginia Binger Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering at ISU. He received his B.S. from the University of Wisconsin – Madison and his M.S. and Ph.D. from Purdue University, all in mechanical engineering with an emphasis in the thermal sciences.


  • PhD, Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, 1994
  • MS, Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, 1990
  • BS, Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1988

Interest Areas

  • X-ray flow visualization
  • Fluid mechanics
  • Multiphase flow hydrodynamics
  • Gas-liquid, gas-solid, and gas-liquid-solid multiphase flows
  • Gas-liquid mass transfer
  • Particle-particle mixing and granular flows


  1. Bothell, J.K., Machicoane, N., Li, D., Morgan, T.B., Aliseda, A., Kastengren, A.L., and Heindel, T.J., “Comparison of X-ray and Optical Measurements in the Near-field of an Optically Dense Coaxial Air-assisted Atomizer,” International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 125: Paper #103219, 2020.
  2. Li, D., Bothell, J.K., Morgan, T.B., Machicoane, N., Aliseda, A., Kastengren, A.L., and Heindel, T.J., “Time-Averaged Spray Analysis in the Near-field Using X-ray Measurements,” Atomization and Sprays, 29(4): 331-349, 2019. DOI: 10.1615/AtomizSpr.2019030744.
  3. Chen, X., Zhong, W., and Heindel, T.J., “Orientation of Cylindrical Particles in a Fluidized Bed Based on Stereo X-ray Particle Tracking Velocimetry (XPTV),” Chemical Engineering Science, 203: 104-112, 2019.
  4. Machicoane, N., Bothell, J.K., Li, D., Morgan, T.B., Heindel, T.J., Kastengren, A.L., and Aliseda, A., “Synchrotron Radiography Characterization of the Liquid Core Dynamics in a Canonical Two-Fluid Coaxial Atomizer,” International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 115: 1-8, 2019.
  5. Chen, X., Zhong, W., and Heindel, T.J., “Using Stereo XPTV to Determine Cylindrical Particle Distribution and Velocity in a Binary Fluidized Bed,” AIChE Journal, 65:2 520-535, 2019. DOI:10.1002/aic.16485.
  6. Heindel, T.J., “X-ray Imaging Techniques to Quantify Spray Characteristics in the Near Field,” Atomization and Sprays, 28(11): 1029-1059, 2018. DOI: 10.1615/AtomizSpr.2019028797.
  7. Lawrence-Dill, C.J., Heindel, T.J., Schnable, P.S., Strong, S.J., Wittrock, J., Losch, M.E., and Dickerson, J.A., “Transdisciplinary Graduate Training in Predictive Plant Phenomics,” Agronomy, 8: 73, 6 pages, 2018. doi:10.3390/agronomy8050073.
  8. Nadeem, H., and Heindel, T.J. “Review of Noninvasive Methods to Characterize Granular Mixing,” Powder Technology, 332: 331-350, 2018.
  9. Marmur, B.L.., and Heindel, T.J., “Scale Effects on Double-Screw Granular Mixing,” Powder Technology, 321: 74-88, 2017.
  10. Morgan, T.B., and Heindel, T.J., “Sensitivity of X-ray Computed Tomography Measurements of a Gas-Solid Flow to Variations in Acquisition Parameters,” Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 55: 82-90, 2017.
  11. Chen, X., Zhong, W., and Heindel, T.J., “Fluidization of Cylinder Particles in a Fluidized Bed,” Advanced Powder Technology, 28(3): pp. 820-835, 2017. DOI: 10.1016/j.apt.2016.12.008.
  12. Kadic, E., and Heindel, T.J., An Introduction to Bioreactor Hydrodynamics and Gas-Liquid Mass Transfer, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ, 2014,